Android is an open-source mobile operating system that was created specifically for touchscreen mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel. The Open Handset Alliance, a group of developers, creates Android, which Google financially supports. The HTC Dream, the first commercial Android device, debuted in September 2008 after being revealed in November 2007.
The majority of Android versions are proprietary. The main parts are derived from the Android Open Source Project (AOSP), a free and open-source software (FOSS) project that is principally covered by the Apache License. When Android is installed on a device, the otherwise FOSS software’s ability to be modified is typically limited. Either the source code is withheld or reinstallation is made impossible by technical means, making the installed version proprietary. The majority of Android smartphones come pre-installed with additional proprietary software, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS), which is made up of essential apps like Google Chrome, the online store Google Play, and the related Google Play Services development platform
Versions 1.0 to 1.1 of Android: The Beginning
With Android 1.0, which was so old it lacked a funny codename, Android had its official public debut in 2008.
The software did include a collection of early Google apps like Gmail, Maps, Calendar, and YouTube, all of which were integrated into the operating system — in sharp contrast to the more easily updatable standalone-app model used today. Things were pretty basic back then, but the software did include them.
Version 1.5 of Android: Cupcake
The practice of naming Android versions began with the release of Android 1.5 Cupcake in early 2009. The first on-screen keyboard was one of many improvements made to the Android interface by Cupcake, which was important as smartphones shifted away from the once-dominant physical keyboard model.
Cupcake included the first-ever video recording option for the platform as well as the architecture for third-party app widgets, which would fast become one of Android’s most distinctive features.
Version 1.6 of Android: Donut
In the autumn of 2009, Android 1.6, often known as Donut, was released. Donut filled in certain crucial gaps in Android’s core functionality, such as the OS’s ability to run on a range of different screen sizes and resolutions, which would be crucial in the years to come. Additionally, it introduced compatibility for CDMA networks like Verizon, which would be crucial in the impending proliferation of Android devices.
Android 2.0 to 2.1: Eclair
Maintaining the rapid release schedule of Android’s early years, Android 2.0, also known as Eclair, appeared six weeks after Donut, and its “point-one” update, also known as Eclair, appeared a few months later. Due in large part to the first Motorola Droid phone and the extensive Verizon-led marketing push that surrounded it, Eclair was the first Android release to become widely known.
Froyo, version 2.2 of Android
Four months after Android 2.1 launched, Google released Android 2.2, Froyo, which focused mostly on performance enhancements from the kernel onward.
Nevertheless, Froyo did introduce a number of significant front-facing features, such as the now-standard dock at the bottom of the home screen and the first iteration of Voice Actions, which let you carry out common tasks like getting directions and taking notes by tapping an icon and then speaking a command.
Notably, Froyo added support for Flash to Android’s web browser. This was a significant addition given the popularity of Flash at the time and Apple’s staunch opposition to offering Flash compatibility on its own mobile devices. Of course, Apple would ultimately triumph, and Flash would become far less prevalent. However, when the internet was still widely available, the ability to surf the entire web without encountering any black holes was a real benefit that only Android could provide.
Version 2.3 of Android is Gingerbread.
With the release of Gingerbread in 2010, Android’s first authentic visual identity began to take shape. The robot mascot of Android has always been a bright green, and with Gingerbread, the color was incorporated into the overall design of the operating system. As Android began its long march toward a unique style, black and green began to infiltrate the user interface (UI).
3.2 to 3.0 Android: Honeycomb
The Honeycomb era of Android in 2011 was strange. With the introduction of the Motorola Xoom, Android 3.0 was released exclusively for tablets, and through upgrades 3.1 and 3.2, it continued to be a tablet-only (and closed-source) program.
The Honeycomb update for Android radically redesigned the user interface under the direction of newly appointed design leader Matias Duarte. It sported a “holographic” space-like appearance that substituted blue for the platforms distinguishing green and placed an emphasis on maximizing a tablet’s screen real estate.